Ghosts for Lists: from Axiomatic to Executable Specifications


Internet of Things (IoT) applications are becoming increasingly critical and require formal verification. Our recent work presented formal verification of the linked list module of Contiki, an OS for IoT. It relies on a parallel view of a linked list via a companion ghost array and uses an inductive predicate to link both views. A few interactively proved lemmas allow for an automatic proof of other specifications, expressed in the ACSL specification language and proved with the Frama-C/WP tool. In a broader verification context, especially as long as the whole system is not yet formally verified, it would be very useful to use runtime verification, in particular, to test client modules that use the list module. It is not possible with the current specifications, which include an inductive predicate and axiomatically defined functions. In this early-idea paper we show how to define a provably equivalent non-inductive predicate and a provably equivalent non-axiomatic function that belong to the executable subset eacsl of ACSL and can be transformed into executable C code. Finally, we propose an extension of Frama-C to handle both axiomatic specifications for deductive verification and executable specifications for runtime verification.

Tests and Proofs (TAP)